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The Temple of sun - Machu Picchu

Machu Picchu is the main attraction that Peru has for visitors. It is that it became an ideal space for all kinds of tourism. Machu Picchu can be reached in different ways as by bus, train and trekking. The walks are one of the most requested for tourists who love nature, this at least four days. The most spectacular hiking route is the Inca Trail which lasts four days, when you do this walk, you arrive at the main gate of Machu Picchu, the Inti Punku. Within this llaqta or town, you can find several areas, such as the platforms that were dedicated to agriculture, the housing area, and those that interest us today, the area of the temples. In Machu Picchu, we will find several temples, let’s get to know some of them.

How are the main constructions of the Incas characterized?

The main constructions of the Incas are also known as constructions of the imperial type. These constructions have the appearance of being held together by the weight of stones on top of stones. However, the union was carried out by invisible fastenings, that is, for the fastenings to fill channels through which bronze or other metal was introduced in a liquid state so that the stones were set. It gives the appearance that the stones do not have anything that unites them, but with this technique, they achieved a perfect union of stones of big size.

Another characteristic is that the finish of these stones, which was completely polished, you can find tall stones with form pillows. Something that also plays an important role, because perceptually it generates harmony, especially when we see stones of great size. The best examples of this imperial finish can be found in the Coricancha temple, the Ushno in Vilcashuamán, and the ceremonial sector of Pisac and Machu Picchu.

Temple of the Sun

Or Templo del Sol is built on a stone that forms a cave. This temple has a semi-circular shape with finely tall granite stones. The circular wall is perfectly sectioned. Between the walls, you can see the windows. The windows acquire greater importance thanks to the tall stone that is found inside the temple.

The tall stone of the Templo del Sol has an imprecise form so that its function cannot be precisely specified, it can be seen as an altar dedicated to the sun and the sacrifices in honor of the sun. It is also presumed that it served as a solar observatory precisely to determine the suitable days to start with the seed.

In the lower area of the temple, right in the cave that is formed by the presence of a solid stone of great size, you can find what many researchers determine as a real tomb for those finished that died in the area of the cave and the enclosure surrounding it, where presumably gold sheets could be found. Gold was the metal to represent the Sun or Inti god, considered the maximum deity in the mythology of the incanato.

The Main Temple or Wayrara

This temple is located in the main area or the center of the temples. Otro nombre que le dan es la Plaza Sagrada. It has three rectangular walls of big size that serve as cement for the rest of the stones that make up the wall. Wayrara would mean “place where there is much wind” or “where the wind is strong”. This name plays a lot with the construction of only three walls.

In the part that looks towards the south, on one of the walls, you can find the vestiges of the figure of a Chacana that is also known as Cruz del Sur. The vestiges present a stone in high relief, probably there is some figure or decorations made of wood, gold, or silver. It is estimated that it was a temple dedicated to a wide liturgy since it would be dedicated to the god in charge of creating the entire universe, Wiracocha.

Regrettably, it is possible to find that a sector of the walls, having a clear layout, is due to the geological faults of the place and the constant rains. However, it still stands as an imposing temple that has been going on for 600 years.

The Temple of the 3 Windows

Probably the most important temple in Machu Picchu, in the totality of its walls you can find stones of great size and finely tall. It has a wingspan of twelve meters wide by 5 meters wide. It is also built on 3 walls, all of which are in the perfect position to look out over the Plaza Principal or the Sagrada Familia.

The center wall, which features the 3 windows, is large and can be seen from the Hurin area. All these constructions are located in the Hanan area, which would represent an exclusive territory, with the presence of all the temples there. The windons have trapezoidal shapes. Inside the walls, you can also find 2 horns that enhance its ceremonial or religious importance.

For Andean mythology, the 3 windows can represent different, which in some way have a relationship with each other. One of them is the one that refers to the legend of the Brothers Ayar that are sold by three windows of the Tambutoq’o hill. Another representation of this triarchy, there would be representation in Hanan Pacha (world of the gods), Kay Pacha (earthly place), and Uck’u Pacha (world of the dead).

The intihuatana

The intihuatana is a sculpted rock that generates different shadows for the movement of the sun, also helps to understand the season of the year according to the shadow that it leaves. This stone was used to make the measurements and predictions that help at the beginning of the sowing season. This entire enclosure is located very close to the temple of the 3 Ventanas and the Main Place; thus configuring a series of constructions of the imperial and religious types.

This stone is found on a small mountain which ends following a series of steps. When you arrive at the main door of this enclosure, you can find the walls with finely tall stones, which would enhance the ceremonial function and the importance of this entire sector.

This is probably one of the most important constructions in the entire enclosure. Likewise, there is a record that this is one of the main attractions of all Machu Picchu. Some tourists or travelers define it as a stone charged with energy for they travel alone to touch it. As we mentioned earlier, that is found on a mountain that gives the appearance of a pyramid, also plays an important role in the Andean cosmovision.


By Inca Trail Machu Picchu - Last updated, 18-04-2023

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